Getting Started


We have already learned that Elixir provides double-quoted strings and single-quoted char lists. However, this only covers the surface of structures that have textual representation in the language. Atoms, for example, are mostly created via the :atom representation.

One of Elixir’s goals is extensibility: developers should be able to extend the language to fit any particular domain. Computer science has become such a wide field that it is impossible for a language to tackle all aspects of it as part of its core. Instead, Elixir aims to make itself extensible so developers, companies, and communities can extend the language to their relevant domains.

In this chapter, we are going to explore sigils, which are one of the mechanisms provided by the language for working with textual representations. Sigils start with the tilde (~) character which is followed by a letter (which identifies the sigil) and then a delimiter; optionally, modifiers can be added after the final delimiter.

Regular expressions

The most common sigil in Elixir is ~r, which is used to create regular expressions:

# A regular expression that matches strings which contain "foo" or "bar":
iex> regex = ~r/foo|bar/
iex> "foo" =~ regex
iex> "bat" =~ regex

Elixir provides Perl-compatible regular expressions (regexes), as implemented by the PCRE library. Regexes also support modifiers. For example, the i modifier makes a regular expression case insensitive:

iex> "HELLO" =~ ~r/hello/
iex> "HELLO" =~ ~r/hello/i

Check out the Regex module for more information on other modifiers and the supported operations with regular expressions.

So far, all examples have used / to delimit a regular expression. However, sigils support 8 different delimiters:


The reason behind supporting different delimiters is to provide a way to write literals without escaped delimiters. For example, a regular expression with forward slashes like ~r(^https?://) reads arguably better than ~r/^https?:\/\//. Similarly, if the regular expression has forward slashes and capturing groups (that use ()), you may then choose double quotes instead of parentheses.

Strings, char lists, and word lists sigils

Besides regular expressions, Elixir ships with three other sigils.


The ~s sigil is used to generate strings, like double quotes are. The ~s sigil is useful when a string contains double quotes:

iex> ~s(this is a string with "double" quotes, not 'single' ones)
"this is a string with \"double\" quotes, not 'single' ones"

Char lists

The ~c sigil is useful for generating char lists that contain single quotes:

iex> ~c(this is a char list containing 'single quotes')
'this is a char list containing \'single quotes\''

Word lists

The ~w sigil is used to generate lists of words (words are just regular strings). Inside the ~w sigil, words are separated by whitespace.

iex> ~w(foo bar bat)
["foo", "bar", "bat"]

The ~w sigil also accepts the c, s and a modifiers (for char lists, strings, and atoms, respectively), which specify the data type of the elements of the resulting list:

iex> ~w(foo bar bat)a
[:foo, :bar, :bat]

Interpolation and escaping in string sigils

Elixir supports some sigil variants to deal with escaping characters and interpolation. In particular, uppercase letters sigils do not perform interpolation nor escaping. For example, although both ~s and ~S will return strings, the former allows escape codes and interpolation while the latter does not:

iex> ~s(String with escape codes \x26 #{"inter" <> "polation"})
"String with escape codes & interpolation"
iex> ~S(String without escape codes \x26 without #{interpolation})
"String without escape codes \\x26 without \#{interpolation}"

The following escape codes can be used in strings and char lists:

  • \\ – single backslash
  • \a – bell/alert
  • \b – backspace
  • \d - delete
  • \e - escape
  • \f - form feed
  • \n – newline
  • \r – carriage return
  • \s – space
  • \t – tab
  • \v – vertical tab
  • \0 - null byte
  • \xDD - represents a single byte in hexadecimal (such as \x13)
  • \uDDDD and \u{D...} - represents a Unicode codepoint in hexadecimal (such as \u{1F600})

In addition to those, a double quote inside a double-quoted string needs to be escaped as \", and, analogously, a single quote inside a single-quoted char list needs to be escaped as \'. Nevertheless, it is better style to change delimiters as seen above than to escape them.

Sigils also support heredocs, that is, three double-quotes or single-quotes as separators:

iex> ~s"""
...> this is
...> a heredoc string
...> """

The most common use case for heredoc sigils is when writing documentation. For example, writing escape characters in the documentation would soon become error prone because of the need to double-escape some characters:

@doc """
Converts double-quotes to single-quotes.

## Examples

    iex> convert("\\\"foo\\\"")

def convert(...)

By using ~S, this problem can be avoided altogether:

@doc ~S"""
Converts double-quotes to single-quotes.

## Examples

    iex> convert("\"foo\"")

def convert(...)

Calendar sigils

Elixir offers several sigils to deal with various flavors of times and dates.


A %Date{} struct contains the fields year, month, day, and calendar. You can create one using the ~D sigil:

iex> d = ~D[2019-10-31]


The %Time{} struct contains the fields hour, minute, second, microsecond, and calendar. You can create one using the ~T sigil:

iex> t = ~T[23:00:07.0]
iex> t.second


The %NaiveDateTime{} struct contains fields from both Date and Time. You can create one using the ~N sigil:

iex> ndt = ~N[2019-10-31 23:00:07]
~N[2019-10-31 23:00:07]

Why is it called naive? Because it does not contain timezone information. Therefore, the given datetime may not exist at all or it may exist twice in certain timezones - for example, when we move the clock back and forward for daylight saving time.

UTC DateTime

A %DateTime{} struct contains the same fields as a NaiveDateTime with the addition of fields to track timezones. The ~U sigil allows developers to create a DateTime in the UTC timezone:

iex> dt = ~U[2019-10-31 19:59:03Z]
~U[2019-10-31 19:59:03Z]
iex> %DateTime{minute: minute, time_zone: time_zone} = dt
~U[2019-10-31 19:59:03Z]
iex> minute
iex> time_zone

Custom sigils

As hinted at the beginning of this chapter, sigils in Elixir are extensible. In fact, using the sigil ~r/foo/i is equivalent to calling sigil_r with a binary and a char list as the argument:

iex> sigil_r(<<"foo">>, 'i')

We can access the documentation for the ~r sigil via sigil_r:

iex> h sigil_r

We can also provide our own sigils by implementing functions that follow the sigil_{character} pattern. For example, let’s implement the ~i sigil that returns an integer (with the optional n modifier to make it negative):

iex> defmodule MySigils do
...>   def sigil_i(string, []), do: String.to_integer(string)
...>   def sigil_i(string, [?n]), do: -String.to_integer(string)
...> end
iex> import MySigils
iex> ~i(13)
iex> ~i(42)n

Sigils can also be used to do compile-time work with the help of macros. For example, regular expressions in Elixir are compiled into an efficient representation during compilation of the source code, therefore skipping this step at runtime. If you’re interested in the subject, we recommend you learn more about macros and check out how sigils are implemented in the Kernel module (where the sigil_* functions are defined).

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