In Elixir we group several functions into modules. We’ve already used many different modules in the previous chapters such as the
iex> String.length("hello") 5
In order to create our own modules in Elixir, we use the
defmodule macro. We use the
def macro to define functions in that module:
iex> defmodule Math do ...> def sum(a, b) do ...> a + b ...> end ...> end iex> Math.sum(1, 2) 3
In the following sections, our examples are going to get longer in size, and it can be tricky to type them all in the shell. It’s about time for us to learn how to compile Elixir code and also how to run Elixir scripts.
Most of the time it is convenient to write modules into files so they can be compiled and reused. Let’s assume we have a file named
math.ex with the following contents:
defmodule Math do def sum(a, b) do a + b end end
This file can be compiled using
$ elixirc math.ex
This will generate a file named
Elixir.Math.beam containing the bytecode for the defined module. If we start
iex again, our module definition will be available (provided that
iex is started in the same directory the bytecode file is in):
iex> Math.sum(1, 2) 3
Elixir projects are usually organized into three directories:
- ebin - contains the compiled bytecode
- lib - contains elixir code (usually
- test - contains tests (usually
When working on actual projects, the build tool called
mix will be responsible for compiling and setting up the proper paths for you. For learning purposes, Elixir also supports a scripted mode which is more flexible and does not generate any compiled artifacts.
In addition to the Elixir file extension
.ex, Elixir also supports
.exs files for scripting. Elixir treats both files exactly the same way, the only difference is in intention.
.ex files are meant to be compiled while
.exs files are used for scripting. When executed, both extensions compile and load their modules into memory, although only
.ex files write their bytecode to disk in the format of
For instance, we can create a file called
defmodule Math do def sum(a, b) do a + b end end IO.puts Math.sum(1, 2)
And execute it as:
$ elixir math.exs
The file will be compiled in memory and executed, printing “3” as the result. No bytecode file will be created. In the following examples, we recommend you write your code into script files and execute them as shown above.
Inside a module, we can define functions with
def/2 and private functions with
defp/2. A function defined with
def/2 can be invoked from other modules while a private function can only be invoked locally.
defmodule Math do def sum(a, b) do do_sum(a, b) end defp do_sum(a, b) do a + b end end IO.puts Math.sum(1, 2) #=> 3 IO.puts Math.do_sum(1, 2) #=> ** (UndefinedFunctionError)
Function declarations also support guards and multiple clauses. If a function has several clauses, Elixir will try each clause until it finds one that matches. Here is an implementation of a function that checks if the given number is zero or not:
defmodule Math do def zero?(0) do true end def zero?(x) when is_integer(x) do false end end IO.puts Math.zero?(0) #=> true IO.puts Math.zero?(1) #=> false IO.puts Math.zero?([1, 2, 3]) #=> ** (FunctionClauseError) IO.puts Math.zero?(0.0) #=> ** (FunctionClauseError)
Giving an argument that does not match any of the clauses raises an error.
Similar to constructs like
if, named functions support both
end block syntax, as we learned
end is a convenient syntax for the keyword list format. For example, we can edit
math.exs to look like this:
defmodule Math do def zero?(0), do: true def zero?(x) when is_integer(x), do: false end
And it will provide the same behaviour. You may use
do: for one-liners but always use
end for functions spanning multiple lines.
Throughout this tutorial, we have been using the notation
name/arity to refer to functions. It happens that this notation can actually be used to retrieve a named function as a function type. Start
iex, running the
math.exs file defined above:
$ iex math.exs
iex> Math.zero?(0) true iex> fun = &Math.zero?/1 &Math.zero?/1 iex> is_function(fun) true iex> fun.(0) true
Local or imported functions, like
is_function/1, can be captured without the module:
iex> &is_function/1 &:erlang.is_function/1 iex> (&is_function/1).(fun) true
Note the capture syntax can also be used as a shortcut for creating functions:
iex> fun = &(&1 + 1) #Function<6.71889879/1 in :erl_eval.expr/5> iex> fun.(1) 2
&1 represents the first argument passed into the function.
&(&1+1) above is exactly the same as
fn x -> x + 1 end. The syntax above is useful for short function definitions.
If you want to capture a function from a module, you can do
iex> fun = &List.flatten(&1, &2) &List.flatten/2 iex> fun.([1, [, 3]], [4, 5]) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
&List.flatten(&1, &2) is the same as writing
fn(list, tail) -> List.flatten(list, tail) end which in this case is equivalent to
&List.flatten/2. You can read more about the capture operator
& in the
Named functions in Elixir also support default arguments:
defmodule Concat do def join(a, b, sep \\ " ") do a <> sep <> b end end IO.puts Concat.join("Hello", "world") #=> Hello world IO.puts Concat.join("Hello", "world", "_") #=> Hello_world
Any expression is allowed to serve as a default value, but it won’t be evaluated during the function definition. Every time the function is invoked and any of its default values have to be used, the expression for that default value will be evaluated:
defmodule DefaultTest do def dowork(x \\ IO.puts "hello") do x end end
iex> DefaultTest.dowork hello :ok iex> DefaultTest.dowork 123 123 iex> DefaultTest.dowork hello :ok
If a function with default values has multiple clauses, it is required to create a function head (without an actual body) for declaring defaults:
defmodule Concat do def join(a, b \\ nil, sep \\ " ") def join(a, b, _sep) when is_nil(b) do a end def join(a, b, sep) do a <> sep <> b end end IO.puts Concat.join("Hello", "world") #=> Hello world IO.puts Concat.join("Hello", "world", "_") #=> Hello_world IO.puts Concat.join("Hello") #=> Hello
When using default values, one must be careful to avoid overlapping function definitions. Consider the following example:
defmodule Concat do def join(a, b) do IO.puts "***First join" a <> b end def join(a, b, sep \\ " ") do IO.puts "***Second join" a <> sep <> b end end
If we save the code above in a file named “concat.ex” and compile it, Elixir will emit the following warning:
warning: this clause cannot match because a previous clause at line 2 always matches
The compiler is telling us that invoking the
join function with two arguments will always choose the first definition of
join whereas the second one will only be invoked when three arguments are passed:
$ iex concat.exs
iex> Concat.join "Hello", "world" ***First join "Helloworld"
iex> Concat.join "Hello", "world", "_" ***Second join "Hello_world"
This finishes our short introduction to modules. In the next chapters, we will learn how to use named functions for recursion, explore Elixir lexical directives that can be used for importing functions from other modules and discuss module attributes.